• How many Years?
  • Note the medicines
  • Is the blood sugar controlled
  • Latest report of BSL- F&PP
  • Adv- GHb A1C
  • What are the complaints?

Diabetes mellitus is defined as a state of chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat & protein metabolism due to insulin deficiency or its‟ action.


Is situated in the C of duodenum. It has Endocrine & Exocrine functions.Exocrine function is to secrete digestive enzymes. Endocrine function is to secrete hormones. (Endocrine gland is the gland which secretes hormone which is released in blood)
Endocrine part is 1% of weight of Pancreas. out of which 70% constitute Beta cells which secrete Insulin. 25% are alpha cells which secrete Glucagon. 5% are Delta cells which secrete Somatostatin.


Is a polypeptide hormone, secreted by Beta cells of islets of Langerhans. It is released in the venous (portal) blood in response to increased blood glucose, amino acids, & small intestine secreting gut hormones called Incretins.

(GIP - Gastric inhibitory polypeptide & GLP 1 - Glucagonlike polypeptide )

  • 50% of Insulin is taken up by the liver & the remaining is circulated in the body.
  • Other two main target organs for Insulin are muscles & adipose tissue.
  • Its action is receptor mediated. The receptor is a cell membrane protein to which Insulin binds & activates it.
  • Activated Insulin receptor brings about its multiple actions by activating one enzyme.
  • It has actions on all three metabolisms, namely Carbohydrate, Fat and Proteins

Actions of Insulin on, Carbohydrate metabolism

a) It allows the entry of Glucose inside the cell.

b) Muscles use glucose for energy supply. (Instead of fatty acids)

c) It promotes Glycogenesis. synthesis of glycogen from glucose

d) It prevents Glycogenolysis i.e., Breakdown of glycogen into glucose

Lack of Insulin or its action causes high blood Glucose Level Complications-Diabetes Mellitus with uncontrolled blood sugar leads to many complications.

  • They are classified as micro-vascular-(Due to damage to capillaries) Nephropathy, Retinopathy & Neuropathy leading to kidney failure, blindness or nerve pain.
  • Other group is macro-vascular-(Due to high levels of Cholesterol enhancing Atherosclerosis) Coronary artery disease, Cerebrovascular accident, Peripheral vascular disease which leads to heart attack, stroke, and death of any part of body These complications are not reversible, hence, should be prevented by strict glycemic control.

Type II DM is well managed by

  • Proper diet,
  • Moderate exercise
  • Medicines
  • Medical Yoga therapy.

One can lead a normal life with a disciplined approach. Proper diet suggested is 50-60 % of complex carbohydrates with low glycemic index, 15-20 % proteins, 10% fat which has minimum saturated fatty acids, rich in omega 3 fatty acids, in addition, food should have ample amount of fibers. Glycemic Index is the degree of hyperglycemia, plotted against time, with reference to one fixed carbohydrate substance (white bread) e.g., Potato/ Corn flex 80-90, White rice 70-80, Brown rice 60, Wheat, peas 50, Legumes, milk, peanuts 40 Trans fatty acids lead to rapid synthesis of cholesterol ( They are formed by reheating the oil again and again) hence should be avoided ). Selective vegetables which have a lot of fibers, lead to excessive bile secretion which leads to excretion of cholesterol. Exercise advised is brisk walking for 20-30min. Medicines advised by physician should never be stopped

Mode of action of Medical Yoga Therapy

  • Yogic Postures involve big muscles, which utilize blood glucose by aerobic oxidation to fulfill their energy needs. This reduces blood glucose level.
  • Kapalbhati helps to reduce blood glucose by strong contractions of muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. (These are eight big muscles)
  • Standing, Sitting & lying postures which involve twisting help in reduction in waist measurement. This helps to reduce Insulin resistance.
  • Selective Yogic Postures are useful to maintain & increase the strength in postural muscles.
  • Study of Yogic Postures helps to improve mind control for adherence to dietary discipline and change in Lifestyle.
  • Conscious relaxation in Shavasan, conscious deep breathing in both patterns - abdominal & thoracic, Ujjayi,Bhramari &Anulom vilom Pranayam, Pratyahar practices ( for emotional balance) Dharana & Dhyan (for perception changes) reduce the levels of stress hormones, reducing blood glucose levels

Benefits of Medical Yoga Therapy.

  • Smooth & sustained control of blood Glucose.
  • Maintenance of strength & endurance in postural muscles.
  • Improvement in Insulin sensitivity.
  • Extremely useful in stress induced Diabetes Mellitus.